Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, and was overlord of Brittany. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. By the age of 16, Richard had taken command of his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father. Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and achieving considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin, although he did not retake Jerusalem from Saladin. Although Richard was king of England he spent very little time there. Most of his life as king was spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. He was seen as a hero by his subjects. He remains one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France.